Programme Policy

The Position under the Act

The Television Act 1954 defines the various functions in the programme field of the Authority and the programme companies. The programmes, says Section 2 (2), shall “be provided not by the Authority but by persons who, under contracts with the Authority have the right and the duty to provide programmes or parts of programmes to be broadcast by the Authority”.

The required standards of programmes are set out in Section 3:

  1. the programmes must not offend against good taste or decency, or be offensive to public feeling, or contain any offensive reference to a living person;
  2. programmes on controversial subjects must be impartial; and
  3. the programmes must maintain a proper balance in their subject-matter and a high general standard of quality.
  4. Other requirements relate to accuracy and impartiality of news, the use of British material and the inclusion of matters of special local interest.

    Section 6 (1) provides that the contracts between the Authority and the companies shall contain “all such provisions as the Authority think necessary or expedient for complying and securing compliance with the provisions of this Act and any restrictions or requirements imposed thereunder in relation to the programmes provided by the programme contractors”.

    The Practice of the Authority

    The Authority in its contracts with the programme companies has reserved to itself aU the formal powers of programme control required by the Act. It recognised, however, at a very early stage of its operations that the kind of relationship with the companies envisaged by the Act, that is to say one based primarily on the idea of retrospective correction, accompanied by the exaction of penalties in some cases, was impracticable and undesirable. First, it was clear that the observance of the programme standards of Section 3 of the Act could not be secured merely retrospectively. Television is an expensive and exacting medium where programmes must be planned well in advance. Once programme schedules have gone into operation, it is difficult to correct or change them to any great extent; influence over programme policy can be most effectively exercised in the formative phase. Secondly, the Authority realised that its substantial powers could form no part of its normal relationship with companies, the selection of which depended on their being willing and able to provide programmes which would comply with the requirements of the Act.

    The Authority has, therefore, sought to exercise influence with the companies not so much by its formal legal powers (though these remain ultimately exercisable) but rather by the development of the concept that Independent Television should operate on the basis that both the Authority and the companies have a common aim — that of producing good television which conforms with the Act. As a result, the Authority receives as a matter of routine full information about forthcoming programmes, on which consultation takes place as necessary between the Authority’s staff and the programme companies.

    The practice of informal consultation is based on the idea that the companies should establish within their own organisations the necessary routines and procedures for ensuring that the programmes which are provided satisfy the requirements of the Act. A necessary part of these routines and procedures is that the Authority’s staff, who are always available for this purpose, should be consulted whenever any point of doubt arises. The Authority for its part is able without undue formality to ask for further clarification about forthcoming programmes.

    Informal consultation is supplemented, as necessary, by consultation between the Authority and all the programme companies on the Standing Consultative Committee. While its field of responsibility covers all matters of common interest to the Authority and the programme companies, much of its work is concerned with programme matters. If, out of the day-to-day consultation between the Authority’s staff and the companies, matters of general application or interest arise they can be conveniently discussed by the Committee and an agreed procedure arrived at.

    It has become the practice of Independent Television for programme schedules to be drawn up on a seasonal basis four times a year; there are, therefore, the winter, spring, summer and autumn schedules to be considered each year. The Authority receives information about the schedules well in advance and is able to comment on them from the point of view of balance and quality as it wishes.

    Programme Balance

    The Act requires balance, but it does not define it in any way and it is left to the Authority to decide whether balance is being secured and, if in the Authority’s view it is not, to say in what ways the position can be rectified. In the first year or so of transmissions after the opening of programmes in September 1955, the Authority’s practice was largely to assess balance retrospectively, in accordance with the strict provisions of the Act. After about a year, however, the Authority came to an agreement with the programme companies as to the elements which must be present in programmes if the intentions of the Act were to be observed. In broad terms these elements were:

    (a) adequate daily news bulletins; (b) religious programmes; (c) political programmes; (d) social programmes; (e) documentary programmes; (f) cultural programmes (i.e. the arts, history and science); (g) school programmes.

    Some of the items in this list were already being presented; others, for example religious and school programmes, were proposed by the programme companies. Since 1957 all the above items have been, though not necessarily in all service areas at all times, essential elements in Independent Television programmes. An indication of the results achieved by this policy is given in the following sections.

    The Total Output of Programmes

    Each week the fifteen programme companies of Independent Television provide for the Authority’s transmissions a total of about 183 hours of separate programmes. Of these, about 60-65 hours will be seen in any single area.

    Of this total of 183 hours, the companies will have produced about 137 hours themselves, the remaining 46 hours consisting of about 30 hours of recorded programmes made in the United States, of which about 8 may be shown in any one service area, and about 16 hours of films made for television or the cinemas in Britain, or occasionally in British countries overseas, which they have acquired. These films will often have been made by subsidiaries of the companies or in association with them.

    The total of 183 hours of produced or acquired programmes consists of about 550 separate programmes, ranging from short news bulletins or epilogues of a few minutes up to the hour-long church services and documentaries and the even longer plays and feature films.

    The 60-65 hours of programmes seen in any one area, consisting of network programmes and local programmes for that area, are thus less than half the total output of Independent Television. The remaining 115-120 hours consist mostly of groups of programmes of specifically local appeal produced in other areas of the country, and seen only by their regional community.

    Some of these 550 programmes are the 150 or so network programmes, and these will be shown in all fourteen service areas or in most of them either simultaneously or at some other time (in all of which cases they are counted in these figures as only one programme). Others, the locally presented programmes, will generally be seen in only one area.

    The companies’ own production of 137 hours a week divides thus:

    Weekly Programme Production
    Hours Percentage of time
    News 15 11
    Talks, discussions, documentaries 40½ 30
    Religion 11½ 8
    School programmes (excluding repeats) 3
    Other children’s programmes:    
    (a) informative 3
    (b) entertainment 3 2
    Plays and serials 12¼ 9
    Opera, ballet and music ¾ 1
    Variety and other entertainment 20 15
    Quizzes and panel games 2
    Sport 16 12
    Welsh language 4
      137 100

    Growth of Serious Programmes

    Classification of television programmes into “informative” and “entertaining”, or “serious” and light”, presents its difficulties and the terms certainly cannot be taken to correspond with “valuable” and “worthless”. A play is “entertainment”, but it may have a purpose more serious and a value more significant than a poor political discussion. Indeed, it may take the form of a political statement in dramatic shape, or seek to illuminate a particular social problem, or human dilemma. But these refinements escape any statistical net, and it is best to make a simple separation of news and news magazines, programmes of information, discussion, debate, talks, practical instruction, religious and school programmes, and all programmes of fact as belonging to the “serious” side of television. As drama, however fine, is excluded from the tabulation of serious programmes, so also are opera, ballet, and serious music. Outside broadcasts are included according to their nature — sport as sport, spectacle as entertainment, informative as documentary.

    It is sometimes said that most people wish to be entertained by television, not informed or educated. This is a remark that can miss the point. People wish to be interested by television: or rather, if a programme of any kind excites their interest and holds their attention, they will watch it as undistractedly if it is a programme of fact as if it is a variety show. Analysers like to do their sums in terms of programme classes. The viewer divides programmes into two classes: the interesting and the boring.

    The following table measures the growth of serious programmes in Independent Television from 1956 to the half-way point of 1959 and then to 1962. In duration, it shows an increase of 74 per cent to the half-way point, and of a further 39 per cent when 1962 is compared with 1959. As a proportion of total running time, it shows similar increases of 37 per cent and of 35 per cent.

    The Growth of Serious Programmes

    London: weekly averages in 1956, 1959, 1962

    Duration Proportion
      1956 1959 1962 1956 1959 1962
      hrs. mins. hrs. mins. hrs. mins. % % %
    News 3 15 3 15 4 00 7 5 6
    Talks, discussions, documentaries 3 56 4 32 8 38 8 7 13
    Religion 1 05 2 22 3 07 2 4 5
    School programmes (including repeats)   None 4 35 5 15 7 8
    Other informative children’s programmes 1 08 1 40 1 45 2 3 3
    TOTAL 9 24 16 24 22 45 19 26 35

    Note – The above table shows the weekly average running times during the two weeks ended 20th October 1956, the two weeks ended 24th October 1959, and the two weeks ended 21st October 1962.

    Of a total of about 12 million homes able to watch both ITV and BBC, nearly 60 per cent (7 million homes) are already watching one service or the other between 6 and 7 p.m. Between 7 and 7.30 p.m. this figure rises to about 65 per cent (8 million homes). It rises again to about 80 per cent (9J million homes) between 7.30 and 8 p.m. At this point it remains more or less stable until 10 p.m. By 10.30 p.m. the proportion of homes viewing has fallen to 65 per cent, and by it p.m. to about 60 per cent. Thus the steady summit lies between 8 and 10 p.m., with well-populated slopes on either side.

    BBC television usually finishes at about ii p.m. The ITA transmissions continue usually for about another 45 minutes. It might be noted that programme analyses restricted to the period 7 to 10.30 p.m. are not only incomplete but also artificial, for this section of the evening does not tally with any known audience patterns.

    Viewing patterns change with the day’s weather and with the seasons. Tabulated for an average month, the proportion of television homes viewing is:

    6-8 p.m. (early evening) 65%
    8-10 p.m. (middle evening) 80%
    10-11 p.m. (late evening) 58%
    Duration and Proportion of Serious Programmes

    Evening hours in London averaged over the thirteen weeks ended 21st October 1962

    Period Duration Proportion
      hrs. mins. per cent
    6-8 p.m. 5 10 37
    8-10 p.m. 2 17 16
    10-close 4 36 36
      12 3 30

    The above table shows, in total duration and as a percentage of total time, the distribution of serious evening programmes in Independent Television. It should be noted that drama, opera, ballet and serious music are excluded.

    The Regional Programmes

    Of the 137 hours of different programmes, excluding acquired films, which the fifteen separate companies of Independent Television themselves produce each week, some 78 hours, or more than half, are produced by the eleven predominantly regional companies.

    These regional programmes, produced in Glasgow, Belfast, Cardiff, Bristol, Southampton, Dover, Newcastle, Carlisle, Aberdeen, Norwich, Plymouth and the Channel Islands, arise from the individual character of the separate regions, concern themselves with regional affairs or give expression to local talents, and are designed specially to appeal to local interests and add to the significance of local life. They may fairly be said to represent one of the distinctive contributions of Independent Television to British broadcasting. They spring from an act of policy: the decision that the shape of Independent Television should be not unitary but plural, as little as possible centralised, as much as possible dispersed and varied. They reflect in programmes the marked institutional change that while throughout the first 12 years of British television (1936-39 and 1946-55) there was only one organisation producing programmes, there were in 1956 five, in 1957 six, in 1958 eight, in 1959 eleven, in i960 twelve, in 1961 fourteen, and by the end of 1962 sixteen. These range in size from the BBC, by far the biggest single television producer, down to Channel Television in St. Helier, the smallest.

    It is not easy further to summarise the aggregate of these 78 hours of local programmes, for they tend to vary in accordance with the personality of the company and the interests, tastes, and talents of the region. But in every ITV region there are local news bulletins daily from Monday to Friday, and in every region there are regular news magazines. These vary in length from 15 minutes to 40 minutes, and they vary in frequency from two days a week to five. Local news and local news magazines together account for about 36 per cent (28 hours) of the aggregate of local programmes. Talks, discussion and documentary programmes account for a further 18 per cent (14 hours) and religious programmes for 10 per cent (8 hours). The remaining 36 per cent (28 hours) consists mostly of local entertainment programmes.

    Although the distinction of main productive function between the four major companies of Independent Television and the eleven regional companies is important to its operation, programmes of regional interest are also produced in the North, the Midlands, and London, where the four major companies operate. These consist largely of news, news magazines, talks, discussions and documentaries. Their weekly running time is about 15 hours, and this output, added to the 78 hours from the eleven regional companies, produces a figure of over 93 hours of local programmes out of the total weekly production of 137 hours. Including network programmes produced in Manchester and Birmingham, Independent Television produces outside London well over 100 hours of programmes a week.

    The Effects of Competition

    Among developments which have taken place in British television since the start of Independent Television in 1955 are:

    • Religion. Before the commencement of Independent Television about 30 minutes a week were devoted to religious programmes. Today there are 5 hours of regular programmes in the two services, nearly a tenfold increase.
    • Schools Television. Programmes for schools were first broadcast in Independent Television’s second year. Today more than 20 series are shown each school week, with a total running time, including repeats, of about 15 hours.
    • The News. In 1955 the news consisted of a single “news and newsreel” each evening. Today in the two services there are four main bulletins. Together with shorter bulletins, but excluding the regional bulletins, they provide six and a half hours of news a week.
    • Talks, Discussions, Documentaries. In 1955 there were twelve to fifteen programmes a week covering the arts, science and nature, social life, and current affairs. Today there are in the two services over fifty such programmes, with a duration of about 18 hours.
    • Regional Programmes. In 1955 total production outside London came to about five hours a week. Today the regional programmes amount to over one hundred hours a week.
    London Programmes: Thirteen Weeks ended 21st October 1962

    Weekly Average

    Duration Proportion
      hrs. mins. per cent
    News 4 07 7
    Talks, discussions, documentaries 8 41 14
    Religion 2 59 5
    School programmes (including repeats) 2 05 3
    Other children’s programmes:      
    (a) informative 1 47 3
    (b) entertainment 5 16 8
    Plays and serials 10 23 16
    Opera, ballet and music   05
    Variety and other entertainment 4 38 7
    Entertainment films 12 32 20
    Quizzes and panel games 2 02 3
    Sport 8 47 14
    Afternoon programmes
    Welsh language
    Ceremonial occasions   12
      63 34 100

    Note – The duration of programmes is transcribed from the programme journals. The times shown thus include programme announcements. An average of about 35 minutes of spot advertising each day is included, a more than proportionate part of it with the entertainment programmes. Excluded from the table are about 45 minutes of advertising magazines a week. School programmes were not shown during school holiday period. The normal duration of school programmes is 5 hours 15 minutes (excluding repeats: 3 hours 39 minutes). ITA’s Welsh programmes are not shown in London. These factors could have a marginal effect on the percentages.

    Hours of Broadcasting

    The permitted hours of television broadcasting are determined by the Postmaster-

    General. The present rules are:

    1. Broadcasting hours shall not exceed:
      1. 50 hours a week;
      2. 8 hours on any one day.
    2. The following broadcasts shall not be taken into account for the purposes of rule 1:
      1. Religious programmes (i.e. acts of worship from a church or studio* and other programmes which the Authority, with the advice of the Central Religious Advisory Committee, approves for broadcasting under the terms of Section 3 (4)(a) of the Television Act 1954);
      2. Ministerial and party political broadcasts;
      3. Outside broadcasts, up to a maximum of 350 hours in any one calendar year, of events which are neither devised nor promoted by the Authority or its programme contractors;
      4. Any broadcasting in excess of 8 hours on Christmas Eve, Christmas Day, Boxing Day, New Year’s Eve or New Year’s Day;
      5. School Broadcasts;
      6. Repeats of School Broadcasts during school holidays of up to one hour daily for a total of ten days;
      7. Broadcasts in the Welsh language;
      8. Broadcasts of a “parade” of new advertisements, made before 12 noon on one day a week (other than a Sunday).
    3. On Sundays:
      1. There shall be no broadcasting between 6.15 p.m. and 7.25 p.m.; but this paragraph does not apply to religious programmes as defined in rule 2 (i); or to outside broadcasts of events which are neither devised nor promoted by the Authority or its programme contractors, or to programmes in the Welsh language;
      2. Any programmes between 2 p.m. and 4 p.m. are to be designed for adults.
      3. The Postmaster-General has granted an additional hour of broadcasting on Sundays between 10 a.m. and 11 a.m. for an experimental period of three months for the transmission of adult educational programmes.

    Party Political Broadcasts

    The allocation of television broadcasting time for Party Political Broadcasts is agreed each year by the major political parties and the broadcasting authorities. The current series of Party Political Broadcasts cover the period from 1st July 1962 to 20th June 1963.

      { 1 of 25 minutes }  
    four 1 of 20 minutes broadcasts by the Conservative Party
      2 of 15 minutes  
      { 1 of 25 minutes }  
    four 1 of 20 minutes broadcasts by the Labour Party
      2 of 15 minutes  
    two   25 minutes   broadcasts by the Liberal Party

    All parties have the option of splitting their 25 minute broadcast into two; that is, one of 15 minutes and one of 10 minutes



  • Anglia Television. 28 pp. Anglia Television, 1961.
  • Annual Report and Accounts of the ITA 1960-61. 77 pp. HMSO, 1961, 5s. 6d.
  • Annual Report and Accounts of the ITA 1961-62. 64 pp. HMSO, 1962. 4s. 6d.
  • A Regional Outlook on ITV. Reprint of a speech by the Right Hon. The Earl of Derby, M.C., in the House of Lords on 18th July 1962. 9 pp. TWW, 1962.
  • A Regional Television Station. 20 pp. Anglia Television, 1960.
  • ATV: The Midlands. 27 pp. Associated Television, 1962.
  • Both Sides of the Camera. ABC Television. A souvenir book of television programmes and the people who make them. 128 pp. Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1960. 21s.
  • British Broadcasting. Radio and Television in the United Kingdom. Burton Paulu. 457 pp. OUP, 1956. £2 8s.
  • British Broadcasting in Transition. Burton Paulu. 250 pp. Macmillan, 1961. £1 15s. Broadcasting (Sound and Television). Mary Crozier. 236 pp. OUP, 1958. 7s. 6d.
  • Fusion. Bi-monthly company magazine. 36-48 pp. Associated-Rediffusion.
  • Grampian Television—North East Scotland’s own TV Station. A six page information leaflet on the station, its aims and objects. 6 pp. Grampian Television, 1962.
  • Independent Television Programmes — Facts and Figures. 20 pp. ITA, 1962. 1s. 6d.
  • Independent Television Programmes — More Facts and Figures. 16 pp. ITA, 1962. 1s. 6d.
  • New Channels. A report on radio and television. Bow Group. 56 pp. Bow Publications, 1962. 4s.
  • Paper No. 251. Based on the Seminar on Problems of Industrial Administration at the London School of Economics in December 1959, by Sidney L. Bernstein, Chairman of the Granada Group. 56 pp. Granada TV Network, revised edition, 1961.
  • Periodicals. Apart from the programme journals, the following regular publications are devoted to television topics: Contrast (3s. 6d. quarterly), International TV Technical Review (1s. 6d. monthly), Television Mail (1s. 6d. weekly), TV Today (supplement to The Stage, 9d. weekly).
  • Programme Journals. In each area a weekly publication gives details of the available Independent Television programmes, as follows: TV Times (separate editions for London, The Midlands, The North of England, Southern England, East Anglia, The Borders, North-East Scotland); TV Post (Ulster); Television Weekly (South Wales and the West of England); The Viewer (separate editions for Central Scotland and North-East England); Look Westward (South-West England); Channel Viewer (Channel Islands); Wales West & North TV (West and North Wales).
  • Prospects for Television. 27 pp. Political and Economic Planning (P.E.P.), 1958. 3s. 6d.
  • Spotlight on TWW. “Servant of Two Tongues” by Mary Crozier, reprinted from The Guardian, 12th October 1960, and “What Cardiff Does Today” by Alfred Francis, reprinted from Time and Tide, 24th September 1960. 8 pp. TWW, 1960.
  • Taking Television Shows on Tour. 10 pp. TWW, 1960.
  • Teledu. A news sheet in the Welsh language containing information about Independent Television in Wales. 4 pp. TWW, 1962.
  • Television in Britain. 29 pp. P.E.P., 1958. 3s. 6d.
  • The Border Discovered. 23 pp. Border Television, 1961.
  • The Creation of a Regional Station. 16 pp. Anglia Television, 1960.
  • The Local Television Service. 22 pp. Anglia Television, 1961.
  • The New Journalism. 40 pp. Independent Television News, 1962.
  • The Thomson Organisation in Great Britain. 33 pp. Scottish Television, 1960.
  • The Truth About Television. Howard Thomas. 321 pp. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1962. 25s.
  • This Wonderful World. A booklet describing the first three years of this programme series. 14 pp. Scottish Television, 1960.
  • TV: From Monopoly to Competition—and Back? Wilfred Altman, Denis Thomas, David Sawers. 120 pp. Hobart Paper 1$, revised edition July 1962. Institute of Economic Affairs. 7s. 6d.
  • Visual Journalism. 12 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1960
  • Wales Today and Tomorrow. A symposium of the views of members of the Welsh Board of Directors TWW Ltd. 36 pp. TWW, 1960.
  • We Cover the South. 29 pp. Southern Television, 1961.
  • Year Books. The following annuals and reference books contain information about television: Commercial Television Year Book & Directory, Business Publications Ltd. (£1 15s.); Kemp’s Film & Television Directory, Kemp (£2 2s.); International Commercial Television Rate and Data Book, World’s Press News & Advertisers’ Review (£5); International Television Almanac, Quigley Publications (£1 15s.); Spotlight Contacts, The Spotlight Ltd. (3s. quarterly); The British Film & Television Year Book, British & American Film Press (£1 15s.); World Radio TV Handbook, O. Lund Johansen (22s.).


  • Festival of the City of London. 1962 programme book, edited by Ronald Elliott. 64 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.
  • Josh White Sings. Music of the New World. The American Negro and his Music with folksong lyrics. Granada TV Network. 44 pp. MacGibbon & Kee, 1961. 2s. 6d.
  • J. S. Bach: 48 Preludes and Fugues. Performed by Rosalyn Tureck. Notes for viewers on a programme series. 23 pp. Granada TV Network, 1960.
  • Orpheus in the Underworld. Offenbach’s opera performed on ITV with the Sadler’s Wells Company. 4 pp. Granada TV Network, 1962.
  • The Royal Ballet in Cinderella. 35 pp. Granada TV Network, 1960.


  • A Description of a Market. A statistical commentary. 24 pp. Border Television, 1961.
  • A Survey of Londoners’ Opinions on Television Advertising Magazines. 44 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.
  • Advertising in a Free Society. Ralph Harris and Arthur Seldon. 216 pp. London, Institute of Economic Affairs, 1959. 18s.
  • Copy Research and Television Commercials. Norman Squirrell. 15 pp. Associated Television, 1960.
  • How a Television Commercial is Made. 32 pp. Institute of Practitioners in Advertising, 1960.
  • London Profiles. Research into product groups. No. 1. Motor cars, 113 pp.; 2. Holidays, 75 pp; 3. Grocers and advertising, 67 pp.; 4. Hardware stores and Advertising, 61 pp.; 5. Electrical dealers and advertising, 60 pp.; 6. Confectioners and tobacconists, 75 pp.; 7. Licensed traders and advertising, 72 pp.; 8. Butchers and greengrocers and advertising, 80 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.
  • Market Profiles. Subsidiary publications to The Londoner. No. 1. Chocolate covered biscuits and bars, 50 pp.; 2. Cigarettes, 50 pp.; 3. Indigestion remedies, 49 pp.; 4. Beer, 25 pp.; 5. Pet foods, 29 pp.; 6. Cold and flu remedies, 27 pp.; 7. Frozen food, 36 pp.; 8. Tooth and denture cleaners, 38 pp.; 9. Furniture polishes, 26 pp.; 10. Breakfast cereals, 40 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.
  • Marketing and Media Handbook. Demographic and media data for the Southern area. 65 pp. Southern Television, 1963.
  • Marketing Survey. Ownership of consumer durables and other goods, and information on individual behaviour in regard to smoking, drinking, holidays, etc. 28 pp. Southern Television, 1962.
  • Media and Marketing Survey of the Midlands Television Area. No. 5. April-June 1960. 195 pp. Associated Television, 1960.
  • Motivation Research and the Television Commercial. Harry Henry. 12 pp. Associated Television, 1960.
  • New Developments in Audience Research Methods. W. A. Belson. 6 pp. London School of Economics, 1958.
  • Notes of Guidance on Television Advertising (Initial Sections). Independent Television Companies Association, 1962.
  • Principles for Television Advertising. 4th edition. 16 pp. ITA, 1961.
  • Research for Programme Planning. W. A. Belson. 15 pp. Associated Television, 1960.
  • Sampling in Television Research. Alan Stuart. 16 pp. Associated Television, 1960.
  • Techniques for Testing the Effect of Television Advertising on Sales. John Downham. 14 pp. Associated Television, 1960.
  • Techniques for Measuring the Effects of Exposure to Mass Media. W. A. Belson. 6 pp. London School of Economics, 1961.
  • Television and Family Life. W. A. Belson. 5 pp. London School of Economics, 1961.
  • Television and Other Mass Media. W. A. Belson. 7 pp. London School of Economics, 1961.
  • Television and the Political Image. A study of the impact of television on the 1959 General Election, by Joseph Trenaman and Denis McQuail. 287 pp. London, Methuen, 1961.
  • Test-Marketing Handbook. Research, merchandising and other services available to advertisers. 22 pp. Southern Television, 1963.
  • The ATV Youth Market. 12 pp. Associated Television, 1960.
  • The Audience for Border Television. Research Services Ltd., September 1961, November 1961, February 1962.
  • The Brand Image and Advertising Receptiveness. Alex Mitchell. 12 pp. Associated Television, 1960.
  • The Effects of Television on the Interests and Initiative of Adult Viewers in Greater London. W. A. Belson. 14 pp. London School of Economics, 1959.
  • The Effects of Television on the Reading and the Buying of Newspapers and Magazines. W. A. Belson. 16 pp. London School of Economics, 1962.
  • The Effect of Television upon Cinema Going. W. A. Belson. 9 pp. London School of Economics, 1958.
  • The Effects of Television upon Family Life. W. A. Belson. 5 pp. London School of Economics, 1961.
  • The Half Decade. An inside story. Leonard Smith. 134 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1961.
  • The Londoner—Explanatory Manual. The background to The Londoner psychological research study. 158 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.
  • The Londoner. A psychological study of the London population. Three volumes. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.
  • The Role of Merchandising in Relation to Television Advertising. 16 pp. Associated Television. 1962.
  • The United Kingdom, an Economic Study. 200 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.
  • TV’s Efficiency in Communicating. W. A. Belson. 12 pp. London School of Economics, 1961.
  • Viewing and Readership in the Border Television Area. 16 pp. Research Services Ltd., 1962.
  • Viewership Survey, January-March 1960. 149 pp. Granada TV Network, 1960.
  • What Children Watch. A survey of children’s television viewing. 58 pp. Granada TV Network, 1961.


  • A Child in our Hands. Programmes for children. 12 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1960.
  • Children and Television Programmes. The report of a joint committee set up by the BBC and ITA. (Committee chairman: Miss May O’Conor.) 47 pp. ITA and BBC, 1960. 3s. 6d.
  • Discovery I. Fifteen talks given by leading scientists in Granada’s “Discovery” science series. 144 pp. Methuen, 1961. 12s. 6d.
  • Discovery II. Eighteen talks by leading scientists in Granada’s science series for sixth forms. 208 pp. Arco Publications, 1962. 12s. 6d.
  • Educational Television. Some suggestions for a fourth service. 32 pp. ITA, 1961. 2s.
  • E.T.V. Conference. Report on a conference at Glasgow University. Scottish Television, 1962.
  • Midnight Oil. A survey on a teaching-by-television experiment. 12 pp. Ulster Television, 1962.
  • Notes on School Programmes. Booklets for teachers and pupils are published each term and may be obtained from the local Programme Company or the Independent Television Schools Broadcasting Secretariat. Series shown during the Autumn Term 1962 are: Art in the Making, Auf deutsch, Chemistry for Sixth Forms, Discovery, French from France, Ici la France, Notre Ville, Romeo and Juliet, Science and Understanding, Story Box, Summing It Up, The Art of Music, The World Around Us.
  • Parents, Children and Television. An opinion survey. 48 pp. ITA, 1958. 3s. 6d.
  • Record of a Conference on Educational Television. Held at the Royal Hotel, Norwich, on Saturday 6th January 1962. 50 pp. ITA, 1962.
  • School Report: The First Four Years. 112 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1961.
  • Television in Education. Report of a conference held at Nottinghamshire County Training College. 50 pp. Associated Television, 1961.
  • Visual Education on Scottish Television. 10 pp. Scottish Television, 1961.


  • America Abroad. A programme in the Intertel series dealing with Cambodia, South Vietnam, Pakistan and Ghana. 8 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.
  • American Viewpoints. Texts of six television interviews in the “Right to Reply” series. 40 pp. Associated Television, 1960.
  • For Richer for Poorer. An inquiry into the business of Britain. 63 pp. Granada TV Network, 1962.
  • Inquiry. Talks in Granada’s current affairs series for schools, by the Earl of Harewood, Professor S. E. Finer, Sir Charles Morris, Cecil McGivern, etc. 122 pp. Manchester University Press, 1962. 8s. 6d.
  • Living with a Giant. A programme in the Intertel series dealing with Canada. 8 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.
  • Scotland and the Common Market. An edited transcript of eight weekly programmes. 63 pp. Scottish Television, 1961.
  • Scotland Today and Tomorrow. A special programme on the state of the Scottish economy. 19 pp. Grampian Television, 1962.
  • The Four Freedoms. The background to the broadcasts. 26 pp. Associated Television, 1962.
  • The Idea Called Commonwealth. An introduction to the world’s largest group of nations. 75 pp. Scottish Television.
  • The Long Day. A one-hour TWW documentary on HM Prison, Dartmoor. 8 pp., TWW, 1962.
  • The Pill. One of the “Life in Action” programmes. 22 pp. Granada TV Network, 1961.
  • The Quiet War. A programme in the Intertel series dealing with South Vietnam. 8 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1961.
  • Three Programmes of Topical Importance from Bristol. 5 pp. TWW, 1961.
  • Under or Over. A series of programmes investigating the possibilities of a Channel Tunnel or Bridge. 17 pp, Southern Television, 1962.
  • Will Farmers Survive if Britain Joins the Common Market? Transcript of a programme on the European Common Market. 14 pp. ABC Television, 1961.


  • A Season of Shaw. Folders on the television performances on the “Play of the Week” series: “Major Barbara”, “Misalliance”, “Don Juan in Hell” and “The Apple Cart”. Granada TV Network, 1962.
  • Anatomy of a Television Play. A candid inquiry by John Russell Taylor into the production of Alun Owen’s “The Rose Affair” and Robert Muller’s “Afternoon of a Nymph” (ABC Armchair Theatre). 223 pp. 64 pp. illus. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1962. 25s.
  • Emergency-Ward 10. A descriptive booklet on the occasion of the 500th episode. 16 pp. Associated Television, 1962.
  • Granada’s Manchester Plays. Television adaptations of six plays recalling the Horniman Period at the Gaiety Theatre, Manchester. 310 pp. Manchester University Press, 1962. 25s.
  • ITV and the Theatre in Bristol. Reprinted from Time and Tide, 23rd March 1961. 4 pp. TWW, 1961.
  • New Granada Plays. Six selected plays for television. 222 pp. Faber & Faber, 1961. 18s.
  • No Hiding Place: a Programme Planned for Success. A research report. 29 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.
  • Somerset Maugham Stories. 12 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1961.
  • The Armchair Theatre. ABC Television. How to write, design, direct, act, enjoy television plays. 115 pp., plus 64 illus. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1959. 21s.


  • About Television. Phyllis Ladyman. How television works explained in colour pictures (for children, but grown-ups may learn from it too). 31 pp. Granada TV Network. Brockhampton Press, 1960. 3s. 6d.
  • An Arabian Night. The programme presented on the opening of Studio 5 and details about the studio. 26 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1960.
  • Elstree Studio Centre. 38 pp. Associated Television, 1961.
  • 405:625. A plan for changing to 625 lines while retaining VHF transmission. 19 pp. ITA, 1961. is. 6d.
  • How TV Works. The technical story for non-technical people. 48 pp. Granada TV Network. Methuen, 1960. 5s.
  • What is a Television Centre? Description of the Granada TV Centre, Manchester. 28 pp. Granada TV Network, 1962.


  • Once a Kingdom. A six-part inquiry into the story of East Anglia, its land and people. 4 booklets. Anglia Television, 1962.
  • Southern Heritage. Historic events in the South of England. 13 pp. Southern Television, 1961.
  • Ten Years a Queen. Transcript of a programme transmitted in 1962. 20 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1962.


  • Farm in the South. Describes the regular series of programmes for farmers. 12 pp. Southern Television, 1962.
  • The Border Television Cook Book. Recipes from “Focus About The Home”. 40 pp. Border Television, 1962.
  • The Other Man’s Farm. Franklin Engelmann in collaboration with Jack Hargreaves of The Farmer’s Weekly describes 26 of the farms visited in the last three years by ABC Television. 256 pp., 32 pp. illus. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1962. 25s.


  • About Religion. Five years of religious broadcasting. 26 pp. Associated Television, 1961.
  • A Man Dies. A dramatisation for our times of the Passion and Crucifixion. 2 booklets. 10 pp., 41 pp. ABC Television, 1961.
  • A New Pulpit. An inaugural course of training in television for clergymen. 6 pp. Scottish Television, 1961.
  • For All to See. The enthronement of the 100th Archbishop of Canterbury. 14 pp. Southern Television, 1961.
  • Journey of a Lifetime. The Ven. Carlyle Witton-Davies retraces the pilgrimage to Israel and Jordan by Anne Lawson and John Bonney on behalf of ABC Television, and tells the story of the two film series. 144 pp. 60 pp. illus. Arthur Barker, 1962. 12s. 6d.
  • Laudes Evangelii. A miracle play inspired by Byzantine mosaics, the paintings of Giotto and the Canticles of thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Italy. 26 pp. Associated-Rediffusion, 1961.
  • One Church. Transcript of a discussion on Church Unity. 12 pp. Westward Television, 1962.
  • Religious Programmes on Independent Television. 64 pp. ITA, 1962. 3s. 6d.
  • Television and Christianity. A report on a two-day course for junior clergy. 10 pp. TWW, 1962.


  • At the Zoo. A report on the Granada TV and Film Unit at London and Whipsnade Zoos. 8 pp. Granada TV Network, 1961.
  • Borneo Jungle: Another World. Three programmes on Sarawak, made by Tom Harrisson, D.S.O., O.B.E., and his wife Barbara. 23 pp. Granada TV Network, 1961.
  • Communication in the Modern World. The British Association/Granada Guildhall Lectures, 1961. Contributors: Sir James Gray, Professor Hermann Bondi, Sir John Wolfenden. 80 pp. University of London Press, 1961. 4s. 6d.
  • Pegasus Overland. A real-life adventure series. Folded brochure. TWW, 1960.
  • S.O.S. Rhino. A programme in the “Survival” series. 14 pp. Anglia Television, 1960. Space. Three programmes devoted to information and opinion on space research. 20 pp. Southern Television, 1961.
  • Tomorrow May Be Too Late. A programme in the “Survival” series. 22 pp. Anglia Television, 1960.


  • Golf on Scottish Television. 6pp. Scottish Television, 1961.
  • Seeing Sport. By Pitkin Pictorials Ltd., for Desmond Lloyd Publications Ltd. 128 pp. illus. September 1962. 15s.